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Baseball From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the sport. For other uses, see Baseball (disambiguation). Baseball A view of the playing field at Wrigley Field, Chicago, Illinois First played 1755 in London, England Characteristics Team members 9 at a time Category Bat-and-ball Ball Baseball Olympic 1912 Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The goal of baseball is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four markers called bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot square, or diamond. Players on one team (the batting team) take turns hitting while the other team (the fielding team) tries to stop them from scoring runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the batting team can stop at any of the bases and hope to score on a teammate's hit. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team gets three outs. One turn at bat for each team constitutes an inning; nine innings make up a professional game. The team with the most runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball on the professional, amateur, and youth levels is popular in North America (particularly in the United States), Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and parts of East Asia and Southeast Asia. The game is thought to have originated in England some time before 1755, as noted by William Bray, a lawyer from the period whose diary historians have recently authenticated. The consensus of historians is that it evolved from earlier bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and rounders. Baseball was then brought to North America by British and Irish immigrants. This is contrary to the popular belief that the game was invented in North America during the eighteenth century. However, by the late nineteenth century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. The game is sometimes referred to as hardball in contrast to the very similar game of softball. In North America, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League (NL) and American League (AL). Each league has three divisions: East, West, and Central. Every year, the champion of Major League Baseball is determined by playoffs culminating in the World Series. Four teams make the playoffs from each league: the three regular season division winners, plus one wild card team. The wild card is the team with the best record among the non–division winners in the league. In the National League, the pitcher is required to bat, per the traditional rules. In the American League, there is a tenth player, a designated hitter, who bats for the pitcher. Each major league team has a "farm system" of minor league teams at various levels. These teams allow younger players to develop as they gain on-field experience against opponents with similar levels of skill. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origins of baseball 1.2 History of baseball in the United States 1.3 Baseball around the world 2 Rules and gameplay 3 Other personnel 4 Baseball's unique style 4.1 Time element 4.2 Individual and team 4.3 The uniqueness of each baseball park 5 Statistics 6 Popularity 7 Organized leagues 8 See also 8.1 General information 8.2 Culture 8.3 Related sports 9 References 10 Notes 11 Sources and further reading 11.1 Published 11.2 Online 12 External links History Part of the Baseball series on History of baseball • Origins of baseball • Early years • First league • New York rules • Massachusetts rules • Alexander Cartwright • Abner Doubleday myth • First pro team • First pro league • Derived from: • Cricket • Compared to baseball • Rounders • Town ball • History of baseball in: • the United States • Worldwide • the United Kingdom • Canada • Japan • Cuba • Netherlands • Negro league baseball • Minor league baseball • Ken Burns' documentary • Baseball Hall of Fame • Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) • Baseball year-by-year • MLB season-by-season Baseball Portal v • d • e Main article: History of baseball Origins of baseball Main article: Origins of baseball The story that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839 was once widely promoted and widely believed, but there was and is no evidence for this claim, except for the testimony of one man decades after the fact, and there is a great deal of persuasive counter-evidence. Doubleday left many letters and papers, but they contain no description of baseball or even a suggestion that he considered himself a prominent person in the history of the game. His New York Times obituary makes no mention of baseball, nor does a 1911 encyclopedia article about Doubleday. The distinct evolution of baseball from among the various bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision. Oina, a very similar bat-and-ball traditional game played in Romania was mentioned for the first time during the rule of King Vlaicu Voda, in 1364. Typically, consensus was that today's baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, however a 2005 book Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, and historical evidence argues against that notion. Several references to "baseball" and "bat-and-ball" have been found in British and American documents of the early eighteenth century. The earliest known description is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, by John Newbery. It contains a wood-cut illustration of boys playing "base-ball," showing a baseball set-up roughly similar to the modern game, and a rhymed description of the sport. However, on September 11th 2008, the Surrey County Council's History Centre gave documentary proof that the game was being played by the British before anywhere else and have written to Major League Baseball explaining this. The diarist William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford. The earliest known unambiguous American discussion of "baseball" was published in a 1791 Pittsfield, Massachusetts town bylaw, which prohibited the playing of the game within 80 yards (70 m) of the town's new meeting house. The English novelist Jane Austen made a reference to children playing "base-ball" on a village green in her book Northanger Abbey, which was written between 1798 and 1803 (though not published until 1818). The first full documentation of a baseball game in North America is Dr. Adam Ford's contemporary description of a game that took place in 1838 on June 4 (Militia Muster Day) in Beachville, Ontario, Canada; this report was related in an 1886 edition of Sporting Life magazine in a letter by former St. Marys, Ontario, resident Dr. Matthew Harris. In 1845, Alexander Cartwright of New York City led the codification of an early list of rules (the so-called Knickerbocker Rules), from which today's rules have evolved. He had also initiated the replacement of the soft ball used in rounders with a smaller hard ball. While there are reports of Cartwright's club, the New York Knickerbockers, playing games in 1845, the game now recognized as the first in U.S. history to be officially recorded took place on June 19, 1846, in Hoboken, New Jersey, with the "New York Nine" defeating the Knickerbockers, 23–1, in four innings. On June 3, 1953, the United States Congress officially recognized Cartwright as the inventor of modern baseball. History of baseball in the United States Main article: History of baseball in the United States Semiprofessional baseball started in the United States in the 1860s. In 1869 the first fully professional baseball club, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed and went
undefeated against a schedule of semipro and amateur teams. By the following decade, American newspapers were referring to baseball as the "National Pastime" or "National Game." The first attempt at forming a "major league" was the National Association, which lasted from 1871 to 1875. The "major league" status of the NA is in dispute among present-day baseball historians, and Major League Baseball does not include the NA among the major leagues. The National League, which still exists, was founded in 1876 in response to the NA's shortcomings. Several other major leagues formed and failed, but the American League, which evolved from the minor Western League (1893) and was established in 1901 as a major league, succeeded. The two leagues were initially rivals that actively fought for the best players, often disregarding one another's contracts and engaging in bitter legal disputes. A modicum of peace was established in 1903, and the World Series was inaugurated that fall, albeit without formal major league sanction or governance. The next year, the National League champion New York Giants did not participate, as their manager, John McGraw, refused to recognize the major league status of the American League and its champion, the Boston Americans who beat the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series. The following year, Giants' management relented, and actually led the formal establishment of rules that standardized the format of the World Series and made participation compulsory. The New York Giants baseball team, circa 1910.Compared with the present day, games in the early part of the 20th century were lower scoring and pitchers were more successful. The "inside game", whose nature was to "scratch for runs", was played more violently and aggressively than it is today. Ty Cobb said of his era especially, "Baseball is something like a war!" This period, which has since become known as the "dead-ball era", ended in the 1920s with several rule changes that gave advantages to hitters and the rise of the legendary baseball player Babe Ruth, who showed the world what power hitting could produce, altering the nature of the game. Two of the changes introduced were the construction of additional seating to accommodate the rising popularity of the game, which often had the effect of bringing the outfield fences closer to the infield in the largest parks; and the introduction of strict rules governing the size, shape and construction of the ball which, coupled with superior materials becoming available following World War I, caused the ball to travel farther when hit. The aggregate result of these two changes was to enable batters to hit many more home runs. In 1884, African American Moses Walker (and, briefly, his brother Welday) had played for the Toledo Blue Stockings of the major league American Association. An injury ended Walker's major league career, and by the early 1890s, a "gentlemen's agreement" in the form of the baseball color line effectively barred African-American players from the majors and their affiliated minor leagues, resulting in the formation of several Negro Leagues. There was never any formal segregation rule in baseball, which presented an opportunity for integration for someone bold enough to attempt it. The first crack in the unwritten agreement occurred in 1946, when Jackie Robinson was signed by the National League's Brooklyn Dodgers and began playing for their minor league team in Montreal. Finally, in 1947, the major leagues' color barrier was broken when Robinson debuted with the Dodgers. Larry Doby debuted in the American League the same year. Although the transformation was not instantaneous, baseball has since become fully integrated. Major League baseball finally made it to the West Coast of the United States in 1958, when the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated to Los Angeles and San Francisco respectively. The first American League team on the West Coast was the Los Angeles Angels, who were founded as an expansion team in 1961. Pitchers dominated the game in the 1960s and early 1970s. In the early 1970s the designated hitter (DH) rule was proposed. The American League adopted this rule in 1973, though pitchers still bat for themselves in the National League to this day. The DH rule now constitutes the primary difference between the two leagues. Despite the popularity of baseball, and the attendant high salaries relative to those of average Americans, the players have become dissatisfied from time to time, as they believed the owners had too much control and retained an unfair share of the money. Various job actions have occurred throughout the game's history. Players on specific teams occasionally attempted strikes, but usually came back when their jobs were sufficiently threatened. The throwing of the 1919 World Series, the "Black Sox Scandal", was in some sense a "strike" or at least a rebellion by the ballplayers against a perceived stingy owner. But the strict rules of baseball contracts tended to keep the players "in line" in general. This began to change in 1966 when former United Steelworkers chief economist (and assistant to the president)
Marvin Miller became the Baseball Players Union executive director. The union became much stronger than it had been previously, especially when the reserve clause was effectively nullified in the mid-1970s. Conflicts between owners and the players' union led to major work stoppages in 1972, 1981, and 1994. The 1994 baseball strike led to the cancellation of the World Series, and was not settled until the spring of 1995. During this period, as well, many of the functions — such as player discipline and umpire supervision — and regulations that had been administered separately by the two major leagues' administrations were united under the rubric of Major League Baseball. The number of home runs increased dramatically after the strike. Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa both surpassed Roger Maris's long-standing single season home run record in 1998. In 2001, Barry Bonds established the current record of 73 home runs in a single season. In 2007, Bonds became MLB's all-time home run leader, surpassing Hank Aaron's total of 755. Even though all three sluggers (McGwire, Sosa, and Bonds) have been accused in the steroid-abuse scandal of the mid-2000s, their feats did do a lot at the time to bolster the game's renewed popularity. Currently, baseball makes up around 20 percent of the franchise sports industry. The team with the highest average game attendance is the New York Yankees, with 51,848 spectators. The New York Yankees are closely followed by the Los Angeles Dodgers (46,400) and the New York Mets (42,327). The 30 Major League Baseball teams earned $5.11 billion in revenue in 2006. Baseball around the world Main article: History of baseball outside the United States Baseball is largely known as America's pastime, but has a fan base in several other countries as well. The history of baseball in Canada has remained closely linked with that of the sport in the United States. As early as 1877, a professional league, the International Association, featured teams from both countries. While baseball is widely played in Canada, and many minor league teams have been based in the country, the American major leagues did not include a Canadian club until 1969, when the Montreal Expos joined the National League as an expansion team. In 1977, the expansion Toronto Blue Jays joined the American League. The Blue Jays won the World Series in 1992 and 1993, the first and still the only club from outside the United States to do so. In 2004, Major League Baseball relocated the Expos to Washington, D.C., where the team is now known as the Nationals. The first formal baseball league outside of the United States and Canada was founded in 1878 in Cuba, which maintains a rich baseball tradition and whose national team has been one of the world's strongest since international play began in the late 1930s. Professional baseball leagues began to form in other countries between the world wars, including the Netherlands (formed in 1922), Australia (1934), Japan (1936), and Puerto Rico (1938). After World War II, professional leagues were founded in Italy (1948) and in many Latin American nations, most prominently Venezuela (1945), Mexico (1945), and the Dominican Republic (1951). In Asia, Korea (1982), Taiwan (1990), and China (2003) all have professional leagues. Many European countries have pro leagues as well, the most successful beside the Dutch being the Italian league founded in 1948. Compared to those in Asia and Latin America, the various European leagues and the one in Australia historically have had no more than niche appeal. Recently, the sport has begun to grow in popularity in those nations, most notably in Australia, which won a surprise silver medal in the 2004 Olympic Games. In 2007, the Israel Baseball League, featuring six teams, was launched. Competition between national teams, such as in the Baseball World Cup and the Olympic baseball tournament, has been administered by the International Baseball Federation since its formation in 1938. As of 2004, the organization has 112 member countries. Since the early 1970s, the annual Caribbean Series has matched the league-winning clubs from Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. The Confédération Européene de Baseball (European Baseball Confederation), founded in 1953, organizes a number of competitions between clubs from different countries as well as national squads. The inaugural World Baseball Classic, held in March 2006, had a much higher profile than previous tournaments featuring national teams, owing to the participation for the first time of a significant number of players from Major League Baseball. The 117th meeting of the International Olympic Committee, held in Singapore in July 2005, voted not to hold baseball and softball tournaments at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, but they will remain Olympic sports during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games and will be put to vote again for each succeeding Summer Olympics. The elimination of baseball and softball from the 2012 Olympic program enabled the IOC to consider adding two different sports to the program, but no other sport received the majority vote required for inclusion. While baseball's lack of substantial appeal in much of the world was a factor; more important is the unwillingness of Major League Baseball to have a break during the Games so that its players can participate, something that the National Hockey League now does during the Winter Olympic Games. Because of the seasonal nature of baseball and the high priority its fans place on the integrity of major-league statistics from one season to the next, it would be more difficult to accommodate such a break in Major League Baseball. See also: Baseball in Cuba, Baseball in the United Kingdom, and Baseball in Japan Rules and gameplay Main article: Baseball rules A single game is played by two teams, who, during the course of a game, alternate playing offense and defense. Each couplet of alternations is called an "inning", and there are usually 9 innings in a game. The goal of a game is to score more points, which are called "runs" in the language of baseball, than the other team. Each team, usually composed of 9 players, attempts to score runs while on offense, by completing a tour of the bases, which form a square-shaped figure called a
"diamond." A tour starts at home plate and proceeds counter-clockwise. See the image below. Diagram of a baseball diamond, dimensions are for Major League Baseball, children play on smaller fields.There are four basic tools of baseball: the bat, the ball, the mitt, and the field. The bat is an offensive tool, either made of wood or aluminum depending on the game being played. It is a long, hard stick, about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in diameter, except at the handle, which is about 1-inch (2.5 centimeters) diameter. The ball in baseball is about the size of a fist and white (though other colors can be used) with red lacing. The glove or mitt is a defensive tool, made of leather, worn on the player's hand to aid in catching the ball. It takes various shapes to meet the unique needs of the defensive position of the player. The game is played on a field, whose dimensions vary depending on the age of the players. However, every field has a diamond, with bases at its corners, which the offensive players circumnavigate, as mentioned above. The part of the field closest to the bases is called the infield, and the part most distant from the bases is called the outfield. Baseball is played in a series of (usually 9) "innings", each of which is divided into two halves (called "top" and "bottom" in that order: hence the phrase bottom of the ninth). In each half-inning, the offensive team attempts to score runs until three of its players are put "out" (removed from play by actions of the defensive team; discussed below). After the third out, the teams switch roles for the other half of the inning. The "home" team plays defense first, and so plays defense in the top of every inning and offense in the bottom of every inning. At the beginning of each half-inning, the nine defensive players arrange themselves on the field. One defensive player is called the "pitcher" and stands at the center of the diamond on a designated spot, called the mound or the rubber - a reference to the rectangular rubber plate at the center of the mound. Another defensive player is called the "catcher" and stands on the other side of home plate from the pitcher. Typically four more players are arranged along the lines between first, second, and third bases, and the other three are in the outfield. Runs are scored as follows: starting at home plate, each offensive player attempts to earn the right to run (counterclockwise) to the next base (corner) of the diamond, then to touch the base at that corner, continuing on to each following base in order, and finally returning to home, whereupon a run (point) is scored. Often an offensive player will achieve a base but be forced to stop there; on future plays (usually in concert with other runners), the player may continue to advance, or else be put out. A play begins with an offensive player called a "batter" standing at home plate, holding a bat. The batter then waits for the pitcher to throw a "pitch" (the ball) toward home plate, and attempts to hit the ball with the bat. If the batter hits the ball into play, the batter must then drop the bat and begin running toward first base. (There are other ways to earn the right to run the bases, such as "walks" or being hit by a pitched ball.) The catcher catches pitches that the batter does not hit (either by choice or simple failure to make contact) and returns them to the pitcher. A pitch that is not hit into the field of play is called either a "strike" or a "ball". A batter is out if he gets 3 strikes. He walks to first base if he is thrown 4 balls. If the ball is hit over the outfield and exits the field there, it is instead (one type of) a "home run": the batter and all other offensive players on bases may complete a tour of the bases and score a run. This is the most desirable result for the batter. A strike is called when one of the following happens: The batter lets a well-pitched ball (one within the strike zone) go through to the catcher. The batter swings at any ball (even one outside the strike zone) and misses. The batter hits any ball so that it goes outside the field of play (on either side of foul lines/foul poles). This particular type of strike is not counted as a third strike and hence cannot result in the immediate strikeout of the batter. A ball is called when the pitcher throws a pitch that is outside the strike zone, provided the batter has not swung at it. A shortstop tries to tag out a runner who is sliding headfirst, trying to reach a base.When a batter hits the ball in field of play and he begins running, he or she is then referred to as a "runner." Runners attempt to reach a base, where they are "safe" and may remain there. The defensive players attempt to prevent this by either catching the ball (if it has not bounced), or by putting the runners out by fielding and throwing the ball back to a base the runner is attempting to reach. Runners put out must leave the field (returning to the "bench" or "dugout", the location where all the other inactive players and managers observe the game). There are many ways that the team on defense can get an offensive player out. For the sake of simplicity, only the five most common ways are listed here: The "strikeout": occurs when the batter acquires three strikes before hitting the ball (within the field); the batter never becomes a runner. (Hence the phrase "Three strikes and you are out".) The "ground out": when the batter hits the ball but a defensive player retrieves it after it has touched the ground and throws it to another defensive player standing on first base before the runner arrives there. The "forceout": occurs when a runner is required to run to advance bases ahead of a teammate's hit but fails to reach it before a defensive player reaches the base with the ball. The "ground out" is actually a special case of "force out." The "flyout": if a defensive player catches a hit ball before it touches the ground, the batter (now a runner) is out (regardless of his location). The "tag out": while between bases, a runner is out if a defensive player touches him with a held ball. Other personnel Any baseball game involves one or more umpires, who make rulings on the outcome of each play. At a minimum, one umpire will stand behind the catcher, to have a good view of the strike zone, and call each pitch a ball or a strike. Additional umpires may be stationed near the bases, thus making it easier to see plays in the field. In Major League Baseball, four umpires are used for each game, one near each base. In the all-star game and playoffs, six umpires are used: one at each base and two in the outfield along either foul line. According to the official rules of professional baseball, making physical contact with an umpire at any time is grounds for ejection from the game. Baseball's unique style Baseball is unique among American sports in several ways. This uniqueness is a large part of its longstanding appeal and strong association with the American psyche. The philosopher Morris Raphael Cohen described baseball as a national religion. Many Americans[who?] believe that baseball is the ultimate combination of skill, timing, athleticism, and strategy. In this, baseball is similar to its cousin game cricket: in many Commonwealth nations, cricket and the culture surrounding it hold a similar place and affection to baseball's role in American culture. Time element Basketball, ice hockey, American football, and soccer all use a clock, and games often end by a team with the lead killing the clock rather than competing directly against the opposing team. In contrast, baseball has no clock; a team cannot win without getting the last batter out and rallies are not constrained by time. Other sports popular on the professional level in the U.S. that do not have a time limit are tennis and golf, although these are individual as opposed to team sports. In recent decades, observers have criticized professional baseball for the length of its games, with some justification as the time required to play a baseball game has increased steadily through the years. At the turn of the 20th century, games typically took an hour and a half to play. In the 1920s, they averaged just less than two hours, which eventually ballooned to 2 hours and 38 minutes in 1960. Though this average dipped to 2 hours 25 minutes in 1975,  by the turn of the 21st century, games had become so long that Major League Baseball's goal in 2004 was to get the average game down to 2 hour and 45 minutes, after coming close in 2003 at 2 hours and 46 minutes. The lengthening of games is attributed to longer breaks between half-innings for television commercials, increased offense, more pitching changes, and a slower pace of play. In response, Major League Baseball mandated a maximum break between half-innings, while instructing umpires to be stricter in enforcing speed-up rules and the size of the strike zone.  Although the official rules specify that when the bases are empty, the pitcher should deliver the ball within 12 seconds of receiving it (with the penalty of a ball called if he fails to do so), this rule is rarely, if ever, enforced. The umpire also has the option of calling a ball if there are runners on base, but this is also rarely, if ever, enforced. The
official rules also require the batter to remain in the batter's box at all times when at bat—another rule that is "observed in the breach". Individual and team Baseball is fundamentally a team sport—even a franchise financially blessed enough to afford two or three Hall of Fame-caliber players cannot count on success. Yet it places individual players under great pressure and scrutiny. The pitcher must make good pitches or risk losing the game; the hitter has a mere fraction of a second to decide what pitch has been thrown and whether to swing at it. While managers and coaches can signal players to pursue certain strategies, no one can help the pitcher while he pitches or the hitter while he bats. If the batter hits a line drive, the outfielder, as the last line of defense, makes the lone decision to try to catch it or play it on the bounce. Baseball's history is full of heroes and goats—men who in the heat of the moment (the "clutch") distinguished themselves with a timely hit or catch, or an untimely strikeout or error. The uniqueness of each baseball park Main article: Baseball park Unlike the majority of sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly, within certain guidelines, in size and shape of the field. With the exception of the strict rules on the dimensions of the infield, discussed above, the official rules simply state that fields built after June 1, 1958 must have a minimum distance of 325 feet (99 m) from home plate to the fences in left and right field and 400 (121 m) feet to center. This rule (a footnote to official rule 1.04) was passed specifically in response to the fence at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, which was not originally designed for baseball, and thus was only 251 feet (77 m) to the left field pole (1 foot [0.3 m] over the bare minimum required by the rules). Major league teams often skirt this rule. For example, Minute Maid Park's Crawford Boxes are only 315 feet (96 m), and with a fence much lower than the famous "Green Monster" at Fenway Park which is labeled as 310 feet (94 m) away and 37-foot (11 m), two-inches tall. And there are no rules at all regulating the height of "fences, stands or other obstructions", other than the assumption that they exist. However, teams are required to obtain approval from the League Office when constructing new stadiums, or when proposing alterations. The main scoreboard at Wrigley Field. This photo was taken during the August 27, 2005 Cubs-Marlins game.Because of this flexibility, there are numerous variations in park configuration, from different lengths to the fences to uneven playing surfaces to massive or minimal amounts of foul territory. The differing styles create a unique sense of ambiance in each location, something that many fans find alluring (and even a source of civic pride). All of these factors, as well as local variations in altitude, climate and game scheduling, can affect the nature of the games played at those ballparks. Certain stadiums eventually get labeled as either a "pitcher's park" or a "hitter's park", depending on which side benefits more from the unique factors present. Some ballparks, notorious for both strong and frequently shifting wind currents, such as Chicago's Wrigley Field can be either, depending on the wind direction at any given time. Many, if not most, baseball fields are oriented specifically to prevent the sun from getting into the pitchers' eyes and interfering with play. In the end, the lack of a consistent, standardized playing field has caused some debate, particularly when comparing players' statistics and career records. For example, hitting a fly ball to the warning track at one field may result in an easy catch for the outfielder, while at another the same hit could result in a home run. Statistics Main article: Baseball statistics Uniquely among sports, baseball lends itself to statistics. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes. (In contrast, sports such as hockey, basketball, soccer, and American football are more fluid and harder to describe as discrete plays.) Section 10 of the Official Baseball Rules requires the Official Scorer to describe each baseball play unambiguously, giving detailed criteria to promote consistency. For example, every advance of a baserunner must be officially attributed either to a batting play, to the initiative of the baserunner, or to a defensive lapse. This facilitates a statistical analysis of baseball, and allows a deeper level of mathematical study than that provided by other sports. Statistics have been kept for the Major Leagues since their creation. General managers, baseball scouts, managers, and players study player statistics to help them evaluate players and choose strategies. Certain traditional statistics are known to, and discussed by, baseball fans of all ages: At-bats are the total number of times at bat that a batter has had. It excludes certain plate appearances where the batter is not fairly tested, such as when the batter is walked or hit by a pitch. A batter's batting average is the number of hits divided by the number of at-bats. It is the basic statistic that measures batting ability. A pitcher's earned run average is the number of runs the pitcher has allowed, excluding runs caused by mishaps that weren't the pitcher's fault, per 9 innings the pitcher has pitched. Other important batting statistics include the number of hits and extra-base hits, and runs batted in (RBI). Other important pitching statistics include total innings pitched, strikeouts per nine innings, walks, and the pitch count. The Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) develops innovative statistics (the term sabermetrics refers to the field of study and to the specific statistics devised) to better gauge a player's performance and contributions, and to provide statistical answers to more abstract questions about relative worth. Some sabermetrics have entered the mainstream baseball statistic world: On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a somewhat complicated formula that some say gauges a hitter's performance better than batting average. It combines the hitter's on base percentage—hits plus walks plus hit by pitches divided by at bats plus bases on balls plus hit by pitches plus sacrifice flies—with their slugging percentage—total bases divided by at bats. Walks plus hits per inning pitched (or WHIP) gives a good representation of a pitcher's abilities; it is calculated exactly as its name suggests. More specific statistics apply to particular situations. For example, statistics may indicate that a batter performs better against left-handed pitchers, or with runners in scoring position. With a statistical indication that the current situation favors a certain player, the offensive manager might pinch-hit this batter, while the defensive manager might elect to intentionally walk the batter in order to face a batter who is less likely to succeed. Popularity The majority of baseball's popularity resides in East Asia and the Americas, although in South America its popularity is mainly limited to the northern portion of the continent. Baseball is among the most popular sports in Canada, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States and Venezuela. Baseball's largest national market is the United States, where it is currently the second most popular sport, behind American football. Baseball was long the most popular sport in the country, and since the 19th century, it has been popularly referred to as the "national pastime." In addition, Major League Baseball has been given a unique monopoly status by the Supreme Court of the United States. This popularity continues with Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig commenting that baseball is currently more popular now than it has ever been. Worldwide, baseball is estimated to be one of the most popular sports, along with Association football (soccer), cricket, field hockey, tennis, volleyball and table tennis. However, in July 2005 the IOC decided to drop baseball from the 2012 Olympics. Organized leagues See also: List of organized baseball leagues Baseball is played at a
number of levels, by amateur and professionals, and by the young and the old. Youth programs use modified versions of adult and professional baseball rules, which may include a smaller field, easier pitching (from a coach, a tee, or a machine), less contact, base running restrictions, limitations on innings a pitcher can throw, liberal balk rules, and run limitations, among others. Since rules vary from location-to-location and among the organizations, coverage of the nuances in those rules is beyond this article. Organized baseball leagues exist in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. See also Baseball portal General information Baseball clothing and equipment Baseball fielding positions Baseball scorekeeping Baseball slang (slang also used outside the scope of baseball) List of rare baseball events (occurring within a single game) Baseball terminology Sports league attendances National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum Baseball awards Vintage base ball Baseball batting robot Safe haven games Comparison between cricket and baseball List of baseball parks by capacity Culture Take Me Out to the Ball Game English language idioms derived from baseball Ceremonial first pitch "Casey at the Bat" "Curse of the Bambino" "Curse of the billy goat" "Who's on First?" Rawlings (company) Baseball superstition Baseball card Baseball movie Fantasy baseball Baseball metaphors for sex George Carlin: "Baseball & Football" Moundball Related sports Oina (Romanian traditional sport) British baseball Lapta ("Russian baseball") Pesäpallo ("Finnish baseball") Softball Stickball References Ward, Geoffrey C.; Geoffrey C., Burns (1994). Baseball an Illustrated History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0679404597. OCLC 29218866. Block, David (2006). Baseball Before We Knew It: A look at something I don't remember. Bison Books. ISBN 0803262558. OCLC 70261798. Wallop, Douglass (1969). Baseball: An Informal History.. New York: W.W. Norton. Sullivan, Dean (1997). Early Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1825-1908. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803292449. OCLC 36258074. Zoss, Joel (2004). Diamonds in the Rough: The Untold History of Baseball. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803299206. OCLC 54611393. Stump, Al (1994). Cobb: A Biography. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, p.138. ISBN 0-945575-64-5. Burgos, Adrian (2007). Playing America's Game: Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line. University of California Press. ISBN 0520251431. OCLC 81150202. Sullivan, Dean (2002). Late Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1945-1972. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803292856. OCLC 47643746. Notes ^ America's pastime really English? Earliest reference discovered ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/baseball/2799671/Major-League-Baseball-told-Your-sport-is-British-not-American.html ^ http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2008/baseball/mlb/09/11/baseball.england.ap/index.html ^ http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/SCCWebsite/sccwspages.nsf/searchresults/d6edee917b44f96a802574c1005675bb?OpenDocument ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_7609000/7609897.stm ^ 'Baseball Before We Knew It': What's the French for 'Juiced'? ^ "Mr. Newbery's Little Pretty Pocket-Book". The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. ^ Surrey County Council: Oldest reference to baseball in the world Retrieved on 22 September 2008 ^ BBC History of baseball exposed 11 September 2008 ^ Szymanski and Zimbalist (2006), p. 220, n. 19. ^ Northanger Abbey at Project Gutenberg ^ Sullivan p. 45 ^ Sullivan p.292 ^ Tygiel, J. (2002). "Past Time: Baseball as History". NINE: a Journal of Baseball History and Culture 10: 170–171. doi:10.1353/nin.2002.0012, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/nine/v010/10.2gmelch.html. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. ^ Sullivan p.80 ^ Sullivan p. 32 ^ Sullivan p.95 ^ Sullivan p.9 ^ Sullivan p.23-26 ^ a b Sullivan p.81 ^ Sullivan p.130 ^ Sullivan p.243-246 ^ Sullivan p.13 ^ Sullivan p.13-16 ^ Sullivan p.141-150 ^ Sullivan p.214 ^ Zoss p.1928 ^ Zos p.90 ^ Zoss p.136 ^ Zoss p.102 ^ Sullivan p.115 ^ Burgos p.158 ^ Burgos p.180 ^ Burgos p.191 ^ Burgos p.215 ^ Sullivan (2002) p.239 ^ Sullivan (2002) p.239-240 ^ a b c Hal Bodley, "Baseball wants just a few more minutes", USAToday.com, 26 February 2004 ^ a b Jeff Greenfield, "Midnight Baseball", Time.com, 13 July 1998 ^ "Official Rules: Foreword". MLB.com. Retrieved on 2008-09-15. ^ "Fewer sports for London Olympics", BBC News (July 8, 2005). Retrieved on 16 September 2008. ^ Baseball Almanac - George Carlin in Baseball and Football Sources and further reading Published Robert K. Barney and Nancy Bouchier, "A Critical Examination of a Source in Early Ontario Baseball: The Reminiscence of Adam E. Ford," Journal of Sport History (1988) Joe Brinkman and Charlie Euchner, The Umpire's Handbook, rev. ed. (1987) Bob Elliott, The Northern Game: Baseball the Canadian Way (Sport Classic, 2005) Charles Euchner, The Last Nine Innings: Inside the Real Game Fans Never See (2006) William Humber, Diamonds of the North: A Concise History of Baseball in Canada (Oxford University Press, 1995) Bill James and John Dewan, Bill James Presents the Great American Baseball Stat Book, ed. by Geoff Beckman et al. (1987) Bill James, The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract (ISBN 0-7432-2722-0) Mark Kearney, "Baseball's Canadian Roots: Abner Who?" The Beaver: Exploring Canada's History (October-November 1994) Michael Mandelbaum, The Meaning of Sports (PublicAffairs) (ISBN 1-58648-252-1) Robert Peterson, Only the Ball Was White (1984 ) Joseph L. Reichler (ed.), The Baseball Encyclopedia, 7th rev. ed. (1988) Lawrence Ritter and Donald Honig, The Image of Their Greatness: An Illustrated History of Baseball from 1900 to the Present, updated ed. (1984) Lawrence S. Ritter (comp.), The Glory of Their Times: The Story of the Early Days of Baseball Told by the Men Who Played It, new ed. (1984) Seth Swirsky, Baseball Letters, A Fan's Correspondence With His Heroes (Crown Books, 1996). David Quentin Voigt, Baseball, an Illustrated History (1987) Online Pittsfield: Small city, big baseball town, earliest known baseball reference External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: BaseballWikibooks has a book on the topic of BaseballLook up baseball in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Baseball Organizations/Leagues/Clubs mlb.com Major League Baseball milb.com Minor League Baseball baseballsoftballuk.com British Baseball Federation Baseball Reference & Stats baseball.wikia.com The Baseball Wiki baseball-reference.com Baseball stats thebaseballcube.com Baseball stats sabr.org Society for American Baseball Research baseball-almanac.com Baseball Almanac with Stats/history/anecdotes Baseball Statistics Database Player/Team/Franchise search, season standings, game score, and more. Baseball News, Resources, & Other cycleback.com Online museum of early baseball memory.loc.gov Library of Congress of Spalding Guides pbs.org PBS documentary - "Baseball" by Ken Burns pbs.org PBS documentary - "Stealing Home" Seth.com Extensive collection of historic baseball memorabilia probaseballarchive.com Baseball newspaper archive robbinssports.com Baseball in China sportscollectorsdaily.com online news/collecting magazine HKsportsFields.com Baseball Field Construction, Design, Renovation European Baseball & Softball News and Information [show]
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227's YouTube "Chili" - STOMP THE YARD (BLACK COLLEGE STEP SHOW MOVIE) Starring Columbus Short, Meagan Good, Ne-Yo, Darrin Henson, Chris Brown, Brian White, Las Alonso, Valerie Pettiford & Harry Lennix (NBA Mix)!
Beyonce * Maxwell * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & sean Garrett * Drake ft. Lil Wayne * Ginuwine * Fabolous Featuring The-Dream * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Jay-Z, Rihanna & Kanye West * Gucci Mane Featuring Plies * Mary Mary Featuring Kierra "KiKi" Sheard * Ice Cream Paint Job * Pleasure P * Mariah Carey * Trey Songz * Trey Songz Featuring Gucci Mane & Soulja Boy Tell'em * R. Kelly Featuring Keri Hilson * K'Jon * Young Money * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Yo Gotti * New Boyz * Jeremih * Keri Hilson Featuring Kanye West & Ne-Yo * Musiq Soulchild * Whitney Houston * Anthony Hamilton * Charlie Wilson * Chrisette Michele * Jamie Foxx Featuring T-Pain * Plies * LeToya Featuring Ludacris * Mary J. Blige Featuring Drake * Mullage * Charlie Wilson * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jamie Foxx Featuring Drake, Kanye West + The-Dream * Jeremih * Mishon * Jennifer Hudson * Clipse Featuring Pharrell Williams * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Raphael Saadiq Featuring Stevie Wonder & CJ * Anthony Hamilton Featuring David Banner * Jazmine Sullivan * Trey Songz Featuring Drake * F.L.Y. (Fast Life Yungstaz) * Laura Izibor
Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 (227's YouTube Chili")!
Beyonce * Shakira * Jordin Sparks * Mariah Carey * New Boyz * Jason DeRulo * Mario ft. Gucci Mane & Sean Garrett * Katy Perry * The Black Eyed Peas * Colby Caillat * Fabolous ft. The Dream * Jason Aldean * Daughtry * Lady Gaga * Michael Franti & Spearhead Featuring Cherine Anderson * Boys Like Girls * Flo Rida Featuring Ne-Yo * Dorrough * Green Day * Linkin Park * Pink * Justin Bieber * Rob Thomas * Maxwell * Jason Mraz * Young Money * The Fray * Rascal Flatts * Zac Brown Band * Shinedown * Disney's Friends For Change * Toby Keith * Darius Rucker * Cascada * Billy Currington * Justin Moore * Kid Cudi Featuring Kanye West & Common * Keith Urban * Randy Houser * Drake Featuring Lil Wayne * Jeremih * Pearl Jam * Kelly Clarkson * George Strait * LMFAO * Twista Featuring Erika Shevon * Uncle Kracker * Eric Church * Jack Ingram * Love And Theft * Parachute * Chris Young * Theory Of A Deadman * Tim McGraw * Sean Paul * Gloriana * Creed * Ginuwine * Keyshia Cole Duet With Monica * Blake Shelton * Iyaz
2009 NCAA Basketball Tournament! List of NCAA Division 1 Teams & Coaches at 227!
America East Conference Albany - Will Brown Binghamton - Kevin Broadus Boston University - Dennis Wolff Hartford - Dan Leibovitz Maine - Ted Woodward New Hampshire - Bill Herrion Stony Brook - Steve Pikiell UMBC - Randy Monroe Vermont - Mike Lonergan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! America East Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference Charlotte - Bobby Lutz Dayton - Brian Gregory Duquesne - Ron Everhart Fordham - Dereck Whittenburg George Washington - Karl Hobbs La Salle - John Giannini Rhode Island - Jim Baron Richmond - Chris Mooney St. Bonaventure - Mark Schmidt Saint Joseph's - Phil Martelli Saint Louis - Rick Majerus Temple - Fran Dunphy UMass - Derek Kellogg Xavier - Sean Miller 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference Boston College - Al Skinner Clemson - Oliver Purnell Duke - Mike Krzyzewski Florida State - Leonard Hamilton Georgia Tech - Paul Hewitt Maryland - Gary Williams Miami (Florida) - Frank Haith North Carolina - Roy Williams North Carolina State - Sidney Lowe Virginia - Dave Leitao Virginia Tech - Seth Greenberg Wake Forest - Dino Gaudio 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference Belmont - Rick Byrd Campbell - Robbie Laing East Tennessee State - Murry Bartow Florida Gulf Coast - Dave Balza Jacksonville - Cliff Warren Kennesaw State - Tony Ingle Lipscomb - Scott Sanderson Mercer - Bob Hoffman North Florida - Matt Kilcullen Stetson - Derek Waugh USC Upstate - Eddie Payne 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Atlantic Sun Conference
Big 12 Conference Baylor - Scott Drew Colorado - Jeff Bzdelik Iowa State - Greg McDermott Kansas - Bill Self Kansas State - Frank Martin Missouri - Mike Anderson Nebraska - Doc Sadler Oklahoma - Jeff Capel III Oklahoma State - Travis Ford Texas - Rick Barnes Texas A&M - Mark Turgeon Texas Tech - Pat Knight 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big 12 Conference
Big East Conference Cincinnati - Mick Cronin Connecticut - Jim Calhoun DePaul - Jerry Wainwright Georgetown - John Thompson III Louisville - Rick Pitino Marquette - Buzz Williams Notre Dame - Mike Brey Pittsburgh - Jamie Dixon Providence - Keno Davis Rutgers - Fred Hill St. John's - Norm Roberts Seton Hall - Bobby Gonzalez South Florida - Stan Heath Syracuse - Jim Boeheim Villanova - Jay Wright West Virginia - Bobby Huggins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big East Conference
Big Sky Conference Eastern Washington - Kirk Earlywine Idaho State - Joe O'Brien Montana - Wayne Tinkle Montana State - Brad Huse Northern Arizona - Mike Adras Northern Colorado - Tad Boyle Portland State - Ken Bone Sacramento State - Brian Katz Weber State - Randy Rahe 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Sky Conference
Big South Conference Charleston Southern - Barclay Radebaugh Coastal Carolina - Cliff Ellis Gardner-Webb - Rick Scruggs High Point - Bart Lundy Liberty - Ritchie McKay Presbyterian - Gregg Nibert Radford - Brad Greenberg UNC-Asheville - Eddie Biedenbach VMI - Duggar Baucom Winthrop - Randy Peele 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big South Conference
Big Ten Conference Illinois - Bruce Weber Indiana - Tom Crean Iowa - Todd Lickliter Michigan - John Beilein Michigan State - Tom Izzo Minnesota - Tubby Smith Northwestern - Bill Carmody Ohio State - Thad Matta Penn State - Ed DeChellis Purdue - Matt Painter Wisconsin - Bo Ryan 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big Ten Conference
Big West Conference Cal Poly - Kevin Bromley Cal State Fullerton - Bob Burton Cal State Northridge - Bobby Braswell Long Beach State - Dan Monson Pacific - Bob Thomason UC Davis - Gary Stewart UC Irvine - Pat Douglass UC Riverside - Jim Wooldridge UC Santa Barbara - Bob Williams 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Big West Conference
Colonial Athletic Association Delaware - Monte Ross Drexel - Bruiser Flint George Mason - Jim Larranaga Georgia State - Rod Barnes Hofstra - Tom Pecora James Madison - Matt Brady Northeastern - Bill Coen Old Dominion - Blaine Taylor Towson - Pat Kennedy UNC-Wilmington - Benny Moss Virginia Commonwealth - Anthony Grant William & Mary - Tony Shaver 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Colonial Athletic Association
Conference USA East Carolina - Mack McCarthy Houston - Tom Penders Marshall - Donnie Jones Memphis - John Calipari Rice - Ben Braun Southern Methodist - Matt Doherty Southern Mississippi - Larry Eustachy Tulane - Dave Dickerson Tulsa - Doug Wojcik UAB - Mike Davis UCF - Kirk Speraw UTEP - Tony Barbee 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Conference USA
Horizon League - Butler - Brad Stevens Cleveland State - Gary Waters Detroit - Ray McCallum Loyola (Chicago) - Jim Whitesell UIC - Jimmy Collins UW-Green Bay - Tod Kowalczyk UW-Milwaukee - Rob Jeter Valparaiso - Homer Drew Wright State - Brad Brownell Youngstown State - Jerry Slocum 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Horizon League
Independents Bryant - Tim O'Shea Cal State Bakersfield - Keith Brown Chicago State - Benjy Taylor Houston Baptist - Ron Cottrell Longwood - Mike Gillian New Jersey Institute of Technology - Jim Engles North Carolina Central - Henry Dickerson Savannah State - Horace Broadnax SIU-Edwardsville - Lennox Forrester Texas-Pan American - Tom Schuberth Utah Valley - Dick Hunsaker 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! NCAA Division I independent schools (basketball)
Ivy League Brown - Jesse Agel Columbia - Joe Jones Cornell - Steve Donahue Dartmouth - Terry Dunn Harvard - Tommy Amaker Penn - Glen Miller Princeton - Sydney Johnson Yale - James Jones 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ivy League
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference Canisius - Tom Parrotta Fairfield - Ed Cooley Iona - Kevin Willard Loyola (Maryland) - Jimmy Patsos Manhattan - Barry Rohrssen Marist - Chuck Martin Niagara - Joe Mihalich Rider - Tommy Dempsey St. Peter's - John Dunne Siena - Fran McCaffery 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference Akron – Keith Dambrot Ball State – Billy Taylor Bowling Green – Louis Orr Buffalo – Reggie Witherspoon Central Michigan – Ernie Ziegler Eastern Michigan – Charles Ramsey Kent State – Geno Ford Miami – Charlie Coles Northern Illinois – Ricardo Patton Ohio – John Groce Toledo – Gene Cross Western Michigan – Steve Hawkins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-American Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Bethune-Cookman - Clifford Reed Coppin State - Ron Mitchell Delaware State - Greg Jackson Florida A&M - Mike Gillespie Hampton - Kevin Nickelberry Howard - Gil Jackson Maryland-Eastern Shore - Meredith Smith Morgan State - Todd Bozeman Norfolk State - Anthony Evans North Carolina A&T - Jerry Eaves South Carolina State - Tim Carter Winston-Salem State - Bobby Collins 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Missouri Valley Conference Bradley - Jim Les Creighton - Dana Altman Drake - Mark Phelps Evansville - Marty Simmons Illinois State - Tim Jankovich Indiana State - Kevin McKenna Missouri State - Cuonzo Martin Northern Iowa - Ben Jacobson Southern Illinois - Chris Lowery Wichita State - Gregg Marshall 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Missouri Valley Conference
Mountain West Conference Air Force - Jeff Reynolds Brigham Young - Dave Rose Colorado State - Tim Miles New Mexico - Steve Alford San Diego State - Steve Fisher Texas Christian - Neil Dougherty UNLV - Lon Kruger Utah - Jim Boylen Wyoming - Heath Schroyer 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Mountain West Conference
Northeast Conference Central Connecticut State - Howie Dickenman Fairleigh Dickinson - Tom Green LIU-Brooklyn - Jim Ferry Monmouth - Dave Calloway Mount St. Mary's - Milan Brown Quinnipiac - Tom Moore Robert Morris - Mike Rice Jr. Sacred Heart - Dave Bike St. Francis (PA) - Don Friday St. Francis (NY) - Brian Nash Wagner - Mike Deane 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Northeast Conference
Ohio Valley Conference Austin Peay - Dave Loos Eastern Illinois - Mike Miller Eastern Kentucky - Jeff Neubauer Jacksonville State - James Green Morehead State - Donnie Tyndall Murray State - Billy Kennedy Southeast Missouri - Zac Roman Tennessee-Martin - Bret Campbell Tennessee State - Cy Alexander Tennessee Tech - Mike Sutton 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Ohio Valley Conference
Pacific-10 Conference Arizona - Russ Pennell Arizona State - Herb Sendek California - Mike Montgomery Oregon - Ernie Kent Oregon State - Craig Robinson Stanford - Johnny Dawkins UCLA - Ben Howland USC - Tim Floyd Washington - Lorenzo Romar Washington State - Tony Bennett 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Pacific-10 Conference
Patriot League American - Jeff Jones Army - Jim Crews Bucknell - Dave Paulsen Colgate - Emmett Davis Holy Cross - Ralph Willard Lafayette - Fran O'Hanlon Lehigh - Brett Reed Navy - Billy Lange 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Patriot League
Southeastern Conference Alabama - Philip Pearson Arkansas - John Pelphrey Auburn - Jeff Lebo Florida - Billy Donovan Georgia - Pete Herrmann Kentucky - Billy Gillispie LSU - Trent Johnson Mississippi - Andy Kennedy Mississippi State - Rick Stansbury South Carolina - Darrin Horn Tennessee - Bruce Pearl Vanderbilt - Kevin Stallings 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southeastern Conference
Southern Conference Appalachian State - Houston Fancher Chattanooga - John Shulman The Citadel - Ed Conroy College of Charleston - Bobby Cremins Davidson - Bob McKillop Elon - Ernie Nestor Furman - Jeff Jackson Georgia Southern - Jeff Price Samford - Jimmy Tillette UNC-Greensboro - Mike Dement Western Carolina - Larry Hunter Wofford - Mike Young 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southern Conference
Southland Conference Central Arkansas - Rand Chappell Lamar - Steve Roccaforte McNeese State - Dave Simmons Nicholls State - J. P. Piper Northwestern State - Mike McConathy Sam Houston State - Bob Marlin Southeastern Louisiana - Jim Yarbrough Stephen F. Austin - Danny Kaspar Texas A&M-Corpus Christi - Perry Clark Texas-Arlington - Scott Cross Texas-San Antonio - Brooks Thompson Texas State - Doug Davalos 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southland Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference Alabama A&M - L. Vann Pettaway Alabama State - Lewis Jackson Alcorn State - Samuel West Arkansas-Pine Bluff - George Ivory Grambling State - Larry Wright Jackson State - Tevester Anderson Mississippi Valley State - Sean Woods Prairie View A&M - Byron Rimm II Southern - Rob Spivery Texas Southern - Tony Harvey 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Summit League Centenary - Greg Gary IPFW - Dane Fife IUPUI - Ron Hunter North Dakota State - Saul Phillips Oakland - Greg Kampe Oral Roberts - Scott Sutton South Dakota State - Scott Nagy Southern Utah - Roger Reid UMKC - Matt Brown Western Illinois - Derek Thomas 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! The Summit League
Sun Belt Conference Arkansas-Little Rock - Steve Shields Arkansas State - Dickey Nutt Denver - Joe Scott Florida Atlantic - Mike Jarvis Florida International - Sergio Rouco Louisiana-Lafayette - Robert Lee Louisiana-Monroe - Orlando Early Middle Tennessee - Kermit Davis New Orleans - Joe Pasternack North Texas - Johnny Jones South Alabama - Ronnie Arrow Troy - Don Maestri Western Kentucky - Ken McDonald 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Sun Belt Conference
West Coast Conference Gonzaga - Mark Few Loyola Marymount - Rodney Tention Pepperdine - Vance Walberg Portland - Eric Reveno Saint Mary's - Randy Bennett San Diego - Bill Grier San Francisco - Rex Walters Santa Clara - Kerry Keating 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! West Coast Conference
Western Athletic Conference Boise State - Greg Graham Fresno State - Steve Cleveland Hawai?i - Bob Nash Idaho - Don Verlin Louisiana Tech - Kerry Rupp Nevada - Mark Fox New Mexico State - Marvin Menzies San Jose State - George Nessman Utah State - Stew Morrill 227's NCAA Basketball Tournament! Western Athletic Conference
2Pac 50 Cent A Adam Tensta Akon Aaliyah Ashanti Andre 3000 B Bow Wow Bobby Valentino Beyonce Bone Thugs n Harmony Birdman (rapper) Busta Rhymes Bobby Fischer C Chris Brown Cherish Cassidy Chingy Chamillionaire Christina Milian Chrisette Michele Cashis Ciara Cypress Hill Calzone Mafia Cuban Link D Destiny's Child DJ Clue Demetri Montaque Danity Kane Day 26 Donnie D12 DJ Khaled Dr. Dre E E-40 Eminem Eazy-E F Fabolous Flo Rida Fat Joe Frankie J G G-Unit The Game H Hurricane Chris I Ice Cube J Jay-Z J.R. Rotem J Holiday Jordan Sparks K Kanye West Kelly Rowland keri hilson The Kreators L Lil' Kim Lil' Mo Lil Jon Lil Mama Lloyd Banks Lil Wayne Ludacris Lloyd Lil Mama Lil Eazy-E Leona lewis M MC Hammer Mike Shorey MF Doom Mariah Carey Mario Mary J. Blige N Ne-Yo Nate Dogg Niia N.W.A. Notorious B.I.G. Nas Nick Cannon Nelly Necro O Olivia Omarion Obie Trice Old Dirty Bastard P Public Enemy Plies P Diddy pink Pharcyde Q R Red Cafe Run DMC Ray J R Kelly Rihanna Rick Ross (rapper) S Sean Combs Sean Kingston Snoop Dogg Stargate Sean Garrett Suge Knight Soulja Boy Tell 'Em Stat Quo shakira T The Notorious B.I.G. Tupac Shakur Trina Tyrese T-Pain Three 6 Mafia T.I. Too Phat U Usher V V.I.C. W Warren G Wyclef Jean Wu Tang Clan will.i.am X Xzibit Y Young Jeezy Yung Berg Z
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Annie Lennox B'z Britney Spears Carlos Santana Dalida Earth, Wind & Fire Eddy Arnold Eminem Eurythmics Gloria Estefan Hibari Misora Journey Scorpions Van Halen Ace of Base Alan Jackson Country Alice Cooper Hard rock Andrea Bocelli Opera The Andrews Sisters Swing Ayumi Hamasaki Pop Black Sabbath Heavy metal Barbra Streisand Pop / Adult contemporary Beach Boys Rock Pop Bob Dylan Folk / Rock Bob Seger Rock Boston Arena rock Boyz II Men R&B Bruce Springsteen Rock Bryan Adams Def Leppard Destiny's Child R&B / Pop Dreams Come True Pop / Jazz Duran Duran Enya Ireland Four Tops George Strait Glay Iron Maiden Jay-Z Hip hop Jean Michel Jarre Jethro Tull Johnny Cash Kazuhiro Moriuchi Kiss Hard rock Kenny G Kylie Minogue Luis Miguel Linkin Park Meat Loaf Michael Bolton Mills Brothers Mötley Crüe Mr.Children Nat King Cole New Kids on the Block Nirvana 'N Sync Oasis Orhan Gencebay Pearl Jam Petula Clark Red Hot Chili Peppers The Police Ray Conniff Reba McEntire R.E.M. Richard Clayderman Ricky Martin Robbie Williams Roxette Sweden Shakira Colombia
The Seekers Australia Spice Girls Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers Tony Bennett T.Rex UB40 Vicente Fernandez Village People Willie Nelson
Jamaal Al-Din, a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan and former leading scorer of Olympic Basketball and LSU great, Ed Palubinskas brings to you Michigan State University's and the NBA's Earvin "Magic" Johnson at 227's YouTube "MAGIC!" provided by Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227-the everything basketball website, featuring YouTube Videos and Wikipedia information on the legendary Earvin "Magic" Johnson, The Magic Johnson Foundation, Magic Johnson Enterprises, and everything including the magical phrase..."MAGIC!" 227's YouTube "MAGIC!"
As we look to expand basketball marketing, camps and clinics nationally, our basketball affiliate programs are scheduled to begin in March of 2008. Our affiliates, exciting, take a look at this list: ebay, StubHub.com, Yahoo Affiliate Program!, TickCo Premium Seating, RazorGator Affiliate Program, SightSell, VistaPrint.com, Pokeorder and WeHaveSeats.com. Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227 welcomes our affiliate partners for 2008. Among the items offered our NCAA & NBA basketball tickets both premium and discounted rates. Basketball shoes and apparel for kids, fans, players and coaches ranging from Air Jordans, LeBron James, NIKE, Adidas, AND1, hats, collectibles and memoralbilia! Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- The everything basketball website!
?227's YouTube "Chili" features these exciting YouTube music and entertainment celebrities...click onto to these 227 YouTube "Chili" links, channels and articles for the most watched YouTube hip-hop music videos in the world!
Sean Kingston, Justin Timberlake, M.I.A'"Paper Planes!" , Timbaland, 50 Cent, P-Diddy, Kanye West. Rihanna, Chris Brown, T.I.-"Big Things Poppin!" , Rihanna- Hate That I Love You (over 29 million views on YouTube)!, Leona Lewis, Soulja Boy, Britney Spears, Alicia Keys, Avril Lavigne, Alicia Keys- No One, Akon, NE-YO, LL Cool J, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Dmx, Jay-z, The Notorious B.I.G, 2PAC, Will Smith, Jonas Brothers, Pink "So What!" , Jordin Sparks feta. Chris Brown- "No Air" Official Music Video-over 33 million views on YouTube!), Lil Jon- get low music movie, Ludacris, Ice Cube, Flo Rida feat. T.Pain Music from the Movie Step Up 2 "Low," Chris Brown*Chris Brown feat. T.Pain- Kiss Kiss (over 51 million views on YouTube)!, Chris Brown-"With You," Chris Brown feat. Lil' Wayne (over 56 million views on YouTube!, Chris Brown "YO," Chris Brown-Run It, Chris Brown- Forever, Wu Tang Clan, The Fugees, Jordin Sparks-Tattoo, Rhianna- Cry, Rihanna- unfaithful, Rhianna- Umbrella (over 43 million views on YouTube/You Tube)!, Ashanti, Fergie Fergalicious, Fergie- Clumsy!, Rhianna- Dont' Stop The Music (over 62 million views on YouTube), Avril Lavign- Girlfriend (over 92 million views on YouTube)!, Clay Aiken, Akon, Christina Aguilera-Hurt, Clay Aiken-On My Way Here, All-American Rejects, All-American Rejects-Move Along, All-American Rejects-It Ends Tonight, Ashley Parker Angel, Michael Jackson ("Thriller"), Backstreet Boys, Augustana, Natasha Bedingfeild, Michael Jackson, Natasha Bedingfield feat. Sean Kingston-Love Like This, Natasha Bedingfield-Pocketful of Sunshine and lots more at 227's YouTube Chili!!! Your source for the world's most watched YouTube Music Videos at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227- the everything basketball website!
Also: Jesse McCartney, Ray J,Usher,Elliott Yamin,Jonas Brothers,Fergie,Taylor Swift, Nelly Furtado, Jennifer Lopez, Flyleaf,Maroon 5,Kanye West,Keyshia Cole, The Pussycat Dolls,Colby O'Donis,Ashanti,R. Kelly,Girlicious, Colbi Calliat, Boy George,Mario,Three Days Grace,Beyonce', Gorillaz,Carrie Underwood,3 Doors Down,Finger Eleven, Ginuwine,Baby Bash,Kid Rock,Joe, Gwen Steffani, Billy Ray Cyrus, Danity Kane, Janel Parrish, Ciara, NLT, Fall Out Boy, Josh Turner, Fantasia and more!